Italian Articles, Gender & Number

Articles, gender and number are the first steps to learn Italian properly. Let's start to practice these very important elements of Italian grammar.

Definite Articles – Gli articoli determinativi

Italian articles identify the gender and number of nouns; they can be masculine or feminine, singular or plural.

In Italian, we have 2 feminine definite articles for the singular form and 1 for the plural form: 

Singular Plural
Before consonant

la

la penna le le penne
Before vowel

l’

l’isola le isole

Here are some examples:

  • La borsa The bag – Le borse  The bags
  • La finestra The window – Le finestre The windows
  • La porta The door – Le porte The doors
  • L’ora The hour – Le ore The hours
  • L’alba The dawn – Le albe The dawns
  • L’aula The classroom – Le aule The classrooms

The masculine definite articles in Italian are 3 for the singular form and 2 for the plural form:

Singular Plural
Before consonant

il

il libro

i

i libri
Before vowel

l’

l’orologio  

gli

gli orologi
Before

S + consonant
Z
GN
PS
Y
PN    

lo

 

lo studente
lo zaino
lo gnocco
lo psicologo
lo yogurt
lo pneumatico

 

gli studenti
gli zaini
gli gnocchi
gli psicologi
gli yogurt
gli pneumatici

Here are some examples:

  • Il tavolo The table – I tavoli The tables
  • Il letto The bed – I letti The beds
  • Il cane The dog – I cani The dogs
  • L’amico The friend – Gli amici The friends
  • L’orto The garden – Gli orti The gardens
  • L’uomo * The man – Gli uomini * The men
  • Lo scoiattolo The squirrel – Gli scoiattoli The squirrels
  • Lo zio The uncle – Gli zii The uncles
  • Lo gnomo The gnome – Gli gnomi The gnomes
  • Lo psichiatra The psychiatrist – Gli psichiatri The psychiatrists
  • Lo yeti The yeti – Gli yeti The yetis
  • Lo pneumologo  The pulmonologist – Gli pneumologi The pulmonologists

Definite articles are used:

To indicate specific people or objects

  • Questa è la macchina di Luca – This is Luca’s car
  • La borsa di Paola è molto bella – Paola’s bag is very beautiful

With possessive adjectives and pronouns

  • Mi piace il mio lavoro – I like my job
  • La tua stanza è al terzo piano, la mia è al secondo – Your room is on the third floor, mine is on the second

With abstract and general nouns, including colours

  • L’amicizia è molto importante per me – Friendship is very important to me
  • Mi piace il nero – I like black

With parts of the body and clothes

  • Stasera mi metto la cravatta – Tonight I’m going to wear a tie
  • Mi sono rotto il braccio – I broke my arm

With dates, *if the day of the week is not mentioned before

  • Il mio compleanno è il 7 Aprile – My birthday is the 7th of April
    *Il mio compleanno è giovedì 7 Aprile – My birthday is Thursday the 7th of April
  • Mi sposo il 2 Giugno 2020 – I’ll get married on the 2nd of June 2020

With times or other expressions of time

  • Sono le cinque e mezza – It’s half past five
  • La mattina mi sveglio alle 7:00 – I wake up at 7 in the morning

With the days of the weeks to show habitual actions

  • Il martedì e il giovedì andiamo a lezione di italiano – Every Tuesday and Thursday we go to Italian lessons
  • Il sabato e la domenica esco sempre con i miei amici – On Saturdays and Sundays I always go out with my friends

With physical descriptions when the verb “avere” (to have) is used

  • Luca ha gli occhi azzurri – Luca has blue eyes
  • Maria ha i capelli rossi – Maria has red hair

With titles and qualifications used with names

  • Il Dottor Bianchi è molto bravo – Doctor Bianchi is very good
  • Il principe William si è sposato nel 2011 – Prince William got married in 2011

With most geographical names, *except for city names and when the prepositions “in” or “di” come before feminine singular geographical names

  • L’italia ha 20 regioni – Italy has 20 regions
  • La Lombardia è una regione italiana – Lombardy is an Italian region
    *Vado a vivere in Italia – I’m going to live in Italy
    *Il mio ragazzo è di Roma – My boyfriend is from Rome

Sometimes with famous people:

  • Il Botticelli dipinse la Nascita di Venere – Botticelli painted the Birth of Venus

Sometimes when talking about friends or family members colloquially

  • La Giulia viene a cena con noi sabato sera – Giulia is coming to dinner with us on Saturday night
  • Il Mauri è troppo simpatico! – Mauri is too kind!

! Definite articles are not used:

When talking about languages, they cannot be used after the verbs “parlare, insegnare, studiare” and after the prepositions “in” and “di”

  • Capisco lo spagnolo, ma non litaliano – I understand Spanish but not Italian
  • Alex parla italiano abbastanza bene – Alex speaks Italian quite well
  • Non so scrivere in inglese – I can’t write in English

With singular possessive adjectives when talking about family members, *except for singular family members with the possessive adjective “loro” or when names have been made more colloquial

  • Mio fratello si chiama Stefano – My brother is called Stefano
  • Mio padre ha 62 anni – My father is 62 years old
    *Il loro zio vive a Mosca – Their uncle lives in Moscow
    *Sono felice di conoscere la loro figlia – I am happy that I met their daughter
    *Il mio fratellino si chiama Gabriele – My little brother is called Gabriele
    *La mia cuginetta ha 2 mesi – My little cousin is 2 months old

With city names, *although there are some exceptions such as La Spezia, L’Aquila, L’Avana, Il Cairo, La Mecca

  • Firenze è una città antica, New York è una città moderna – Florence is an old city, New York is a modern city
    *La Spezia si trova in Liguria – La Spezia is in Liguria

Indefinite Articles – Gli articoli indeterminativi

Indefinite articles are used to introduce someone or something new, not previously mentioned; or to talk about someone or something in a more general and undefined way.

Just as with the definite articles, in Italian there are 2 feminine indefinite articles for the singular form and 1 for the plural form:

Singular Plural
Before consonant una una penna delle delle penne
Before vowel un’ un’isola delle isole

Here are some examples:

  • Una ragazza A girl – Delle ragazze Some girls
  • Una mela An apple – Delle mele Some apples
  • Una studentessa A student – Delle studentesse Some students
  • Un’insalata A salad – Delle insalate Some salads
  • Un’aula A classroom – Delle aule Some classrooms
  • Un’ora An hour – Delle ore Some hours

And for the masculine form, there are 2 indefinite articles for the singular form and 2 for the plural form:

Singular Plural
Before consonant       un un libro dei dei libri
Before vowel                 un un orologio  

degli

degli orologi
Before:

S + consonant
Z
GN
PS
Y
PN    

uno  

uno studente
uno zaino
uno gnocco
uno psicologo
uno yogurt
uno pneumatico

 

degli studenti
degli zaini
degli gnocchi
degli psicologi
degli yogurt
degli pneumatici

! Pay attention: with indefinite articles an APOSTROPHE is used only with FEMININE nouns (eg. “un’amica”) and NOT with MASCULINE ones (eg. “un amico”)

Here are some examples for the masculine form:

  • Un bicchiere A glass – Dei bicchieri Some glasses
  • Un coltello A knife – Dei coltelli Some knives
  • Un telefono A phone – Dei telefoni Some telephones
  • Un amico A friend – Degli amici Some friends
  • Un orto A garden – Degli orti Some gardens
  • Un uomo * A man – Degli uomini * Some men
  • Uno scoiattolo A squirrel – Degli scoiattoli Some squirrels
  • Uno zio An uncle – Degli zii Some uncles
  • Uno gnomo A gnome – Degli gnomi Some gnomes
  • Uno psichiatra A psychiatrist – Degli psichiatri Some psychiatrists
  • Uno yeti A yeti – Degli yeti Some yetis
  • Uno pneumologo A pulmonologist – Degli pneumologi Some pulmonologists

Indefinite articles are used for:

People, animals, or things that are not known by the person speaking

  • Una persona ha suonato il campanello – A person rang the bell
  • Ieri ho trovato un cane – Yesterday I found a dog

Undefined people, animals or things

  • Vorrei un gelato – I would like an ice cream
  • Prendi un libro in libreria – You take a book from the library

Parts of the body (of which there are more than one)

  • Maria si è rotta un ginocchio – Maria broke her knee
    [ma: *Maria si è rotta il ginocchio sinistro – but: * Maria broke her left knee]
  • Stefano ha un occhio gonfio – Stefano has a swollen eye
    [ma: *Stefano ha gli occhi gonfi – but: * Stefano has swollen eyes]

Noun and Gender (Masculine and feminine) – Il nome e il genere (maschile e femminile)

Nouns are words that refer to a person or a thing and they can be masculine or feminine, singular or plural.

Singular nouns ending in – O are masculine, and change to end in -I in the plural form:

Singular Plural
Masculine -o il dizionario
il libro
lo zaino
lo sbaglio
l’aereo
-i i dizionari
i libri
gli zaini
gli sbagli
gli aerei

Singular nouns ending in – A are feminine, and change to end in -E in the plural form:

Singular Plural
Feminine -a la finestra
la porta
la penna
l’ora
l’amica
-e le finestre
le porte
le penne
le ore
le amiche

Singular nouns ending in -E can be either masculine or feminine: there is no special rule to help identify them, only studying and practicing them!
However, the plural form always ends in – I (masculine) and -e (feminine),
as shown in these examples:

Singular Plural
Masculine -e Il padre
il pesc
il bicchiere
il mare
il dolce
il fiore
-i i padr
i pesci
i bicchieri
i mari
i dolci
i fiori
Singular Plural
Feminine -e la madre
la lezione
la chiave
la nave
la situazione
la volpe
-i le madri
le lezioni
le chiavi
le navi
le situazioni
le volpi

Some exceptions to the rules:

  • La radio The radio – Le radio The radios
  • Il programma The programme – I programmi The programmes
  • L’uovo The egg – Le uova The eggs
  • L’uomo The man – Gli uomini The men
  • Il problema The problem – I problemi The problems
  • La mano The hand – Le mani The hands
  • Il bar The bar – I bar The bars
  • Il cinema The cinema – I cinema The cinemas

Nouns that have been taken from other languages or that end in an accent are invariable, and so we just change the article in the plural form:

  • Il computer The computer – I computer The computers
  • La email The email – Le email The emails
  • Il caffè The coffee – I caffè The coffees
  • Il papà The dad – I papà The dads

! PAY ATTENTION: to change a noun from singular to plural, always remember to change both the article and the ending!

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